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Enforcing Copyright Law On Nigerian Films In Uganda Media Essay


Film piracy began 110 years ago and represents the greatest threat to the economic basis of film-making (Motion Picture Association of America, 2004, p.3). For Segrave (2003) film piracy began almost immediately after the establishment of the film industry while for Butterfield (n.d); it is tangled up in the ever-advancing technologies. Segrave describes film piracy as a within-the-industry phenomenon where studios stole from each other. He further contends that as the industry grew and more money was involved, outsiders became more interested in piracy which eventually made its way offshore since detection was less likely.

Definitions of intellectual property

The World Intellectual Property Organisation website distinguishes two kinds of intellectual property notably; industrial and copyright (WIPO, n.d). The latter kind of intellectual property which will be the focus of this research relates to literally and artistic works such as Nigerian film productions (WIPO, n.d). Copyright is the exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, sell, or distribute the matter and form of something (Merriam-Webster, n.d), in this case, Nigerian films.

Statement of the problem and research purpose

In Uganda, the current proliferation of products from the African film industry is in confrontation with the growing problem of copyright piracy amidst a weak legislative enforcement environment that inevitably impacts on revenues accruing to the original producers of Nigerian films and continues to encourage the illegal practice.

Mashelkar (2001, p956) argues that many third world countries have not directly received good advice on creating national legislation under the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement of 2000 that harmonizes global policies on intellectual rights. He further underscores that without good advice on

creating effective national legislation in alignment with TRIPS obligations; many countries have legislated themselves into a disadvantageous position. Perhaps this disadvantageous position is reflected in poor copyright enforcement particularly on Nigerian movies in Uganda evidenced by the proliferation of these films in local film halls, on national television and in sales of digital audiovisual ware. Native Ugandans loosely refer to this proliferation craze as the "Ki-nigeria" phenomenon. Uganda is particularly prone to Nigerian film piracy because of the low level of production of native films

With irrefutable evidence of the extent of proliferation and dominance of Nigerian films in Uganda, a key question that this situation raises is: "what are the challenges of enforcing copyright on these films?" The purpose of this research therefore, is to investigate the little understood issue of the challenges faced in enforcing copyright law on Nigerian films in Uganda.

Significance of the problem

On a global scale, the impact of piracy has cost the worldwide motion picture industry an estimated US$ 3.5 billion in 2004 and another US$ 18.2 billion in 2005 (Motion Picture Association of America, 2008). The Nigeria's movie industry (Nollywood) produces over 1,200 films a year (Barrot, 2009,p34), grosses $2.75 billion in annual revenues (Catells, 2009, p92) and loses US$ 805m from digital piracy (Stanford, 2007)

In addition to hurting a country's economy, consumers and the film industry; film piracy is exacerbated with the advent of digital technology that allows an infi­nite number of perfect copies to be made inexpensively from just one original and further allows those copies to be distributed almost without cost around the world (Castro, Bennett & Andes, 2009). Film industry experts have stated that without piracy as an obstacle, studios could add even larger sums of money to the economy (Butterfield, n.d).

Recent media reports in Uganda have reported how piracy of Nigerian films makes it harder for film-makers and musicians in developing countries to recover their costs compared to their counterparts in Hollywood (Van Gelder, 2009, p1).

Theoretical framings and research questions

This research topic is rooted in a number of media theories. However for purposes of this research investigation, 3 theories are used to demarcate the research scope: political economy, public sphere and globalisation theories.

According to Mosco (2004), political economy has tended to focus on the relationship of how media institutions relate to other institutions of society, particularly the political, financial and industrial, and how these influences account for media industrial and professional practices. This research argues that the relationship that Mosco describes can be viewed from the perspective of the relationship between media institutions in one country and other institutions of society in another. In examining this framing, this research will explore how products from the offshore media institutions that produce Nigerian films outside Uganda manage to beat copyright enforcers and find their way into mainstream Ugandan society.

Another theory central to this research is the public sphere approach that Boyd-Barrett (2001) contends provides a basis for some research studies that identify the role of the media in fostering or impeding the development, operation and survival of conditions that account for why some manifestations of a public sphere appear effective , and others not. Guided by this framing, this research has attempted to illuminate the role that the media has played or not played in enforcing copyright law on Nigerian films in Uganda.

The final theory that frames this research investigation is globalisation. This research shades more light on the driving forces of globalisation processes notably; technological development, financial markets, enormous growth of trade and politics as described by Hamelink (2002). Hamelink further asserts that convergence in the fields of informatics and telecommunications has largely enabled the processes of globalization to take root and provide the essential infrastructure for global transactions. This framing will helpe in examining and understanding the contribution of technological advancement in the business of appropriating and commodification of Nigerian films in Uganda. In addition, Hamelink (2002) underscores the role that the expansion of financial markets and the growth of trade have in contributing to proliferating markets all over the globe. This is the framing within which main the research topic sits and makes the point that Nigerian films are "hot cakes" in Uganda because the country has a lucrative market for the Nigerian film industry. Nonetheless, the whole essence of investigating this "hypothesis" is to understand the very conditions under which this market thrives or remains lucrative; and this has included an overview of whether the political climate is supportive of this film trade.


The purpose is to show that I am aware of where my own piece of research fits into the overall context of research in my field.

To do this I need to: a) describe the current state of research in this topic area

b) consider whether there are any closely related areas that I also need to refer to.

c) Identify a gap where I argue that further research is needed, and

d) Explain how I plan to attend to that particular research gap.

This can lead logically into a clear statement of the research question(s) or problem(s) I will be addressing.

In addition to the research context, there may be other relevant contexts to present, for example: Theoretical context; methodological context; practice context and political context.

** It is worth developing a logical structure to identify the best order for sections in this chapter to help convince examiners of the relevance of my research, and that I understand its relevance. It will also provide a framework that I can refer back to in my discussion chapter; when I reflect on the extent to which my research has achieved what it set out to do.

Global concerns around intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights have and continue to be an issue of global debate. At the centre of these debates are a range of underlying concerns. For Bell (2001, p.1), "Arguments about intellectual property ultimately turn on questions of values, not merely questions of fact or quantitative measures." Meanwhile for Delong (2001, p.1), the discussion on intellectual property should focus on its tangible dimensions. Institutions too, have their take on the subject. The US Federal Bureau of Investigation or FBI is more concerned with who is stealing what (Gudaitis, et.al., 2004, p.2). For the World Intellectual Property Organisation -WIPO the objective involves promoting and harmonising intellectual property laws relating to copyright, patent and trademarks internationally (Boyle, 2004, p.1). Boyle sees the WIPO approach as a means that seeks to create limited legal monopolies as a way of protecting and rewarding innovators in art and technology hence encouraging firms to produce quality products, and allowing consumers to rely on the identity of the products they purchased. From another perspective, Mashelkar (2001, p.1) underscores the obligations of the Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Systems -TRIPS that requires all the members of World Trade Organization -WTO are supposed to implement national systems of intellectual property rights following an agreed set of minimum standards which he views as a framework for demanding harmonization from those that are not equal, either economically or institutionally. Developing countries such as Uganda have their intellectual property paradigms embedded in the country's copyright law. Indeed, the range of views on what should take centre stage in understanding intellectual property rights and its related policies only serve to underscore the complexity of the issues it seeks to address.

Global scope and challenges of intellectual property rights


In the new world economy, intellectual property rights are invaluable in the fight to achieve and retain market shares (Ramdas, 2000). Ramdas demarcates the scope of the concept of intellectual rights which he argues presupposes an exclusive right to perform some well-defined activity, mainly manufacturing or marketing. He goes on to argue that the increase in the number of patents granted and trademarks registered indicate that intellectual property rights provide immense commercial returns. Proliferators of illegal trade in films and other digitised media have exploited the flipside of this argument and breached copyright and other patent provisions on highly marketable commodities in order to make a profit.

For Mashelkar (2001), an ideal regime of intellectual property rights strikes a balance between private incentives for innovators and the public interest of maximizing access to the fruits of innovation.

(Ramdas, 2000) The importance of recognising intellectual property rights is understood worldwide, and almost all countries have framed statutes for their protection as these laws safeguard ideas and information of commercial value.

But intellectual property laws guarantee only limited protection against exploitation. The economic needs of the country always prevail over the commercial interest of an individual, and the legal protection is limited to giving the freedom to compete. The increasing awareness of intellectual property rights has brought a lot of pressure on the legal framework. The resources of the existing legal systems are feeling the strain.


The challenges faced by intellectual property laws are both substantial and procedural.

Many rights that have be en included under intellectual property could not be protected in the absence of comprehensive statutes. For example, the best method of protecting a computer program has not been yet found though it is recognised as copyright; there is a strong campaign to bring computer programs within the context of patent rights.

Kusumadara (2007). Ignorance of these rights and their legal status is still very widespread. Indonesia remained on the United States "Priority Watch List" until November 2006 when the US Trade Representative upgraded Indonesia to "Watch List".5 Piracy of literary and artistic works is still rampant and trademark counterfeiting is still widespread. Rental shops that rent pirated films and computer rentals that use infringed software, can be found everywhere in Indonesia.

There are several factors that contribute to the difficulties of enforcing intellectual property laws in Indonesia, among others:

1. The origins of the existing intellectual property regime in Indonesia does not lie and has never been developed in Indonesia, but rather in Western countries that have different economic interests and cultural norms from those of Indonesia.

Intellectual property rights have brought to light the increasing advantages of proprietary rights in an age of economic liberalisation and cut-throat trade competition. Possession of a legally-recognised intellectual property helps one maintain an early lead in the business. They recognise the monopoly of the patent grantee or a trademark owner and monitor the activities of market competitors and licencees. But the degree of market power created by intellectual property varies from item to item. With substitute products flooding the market, it is difficult to determine the quantum of the product consumers want. Due to sociopolitical and economic reasons most intellectual property has little capacity to generate market power.

The development of these laws is strongly founded on political and economic history of the world. As a corollary to the economic development propelled by the Industrial Revolution, the first legislation that recognised the laws was the Statute of Monop olies of 1624, in England. This was followed by the Copyright Act of 1709, which provided a writer with the sole right of printing his book for 14 to 21 years. Over the centuries, statutes have been drafted with greater clarity of expression and organisa tion.

In India, most intellectual property rights are recognised by legislation and protected by statutes and a large number of judicial decisions in the realm of Law of Torts.

Intellectual property such as patents, trademarks and industrial designs are also known as industrial properties. In India, trademarks of goods were protected by the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act 1958, which was amended in 1999. The Trade Marks Act of 1999 also provides for registration and protection of trademarks for services and goods. This amendment Act recognises exclusive marketing rights: Chapter 9A grants patents for medicines, which was not possible under the 1970 Act. Designs are protected under the Designs Act, 1911. A Copyright, granted for artistic, literary and musical works (and lasting for 60 years after the author's death), protects the author and artist from unlawful reproduction, piracy and imitation. But the ideas and oral commun ication of the original contents are still unsafe. The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994 acknowledges performance right and computer program within the concept of copyright. But there is no comprehensive statute that addresses all problems that might arise in the field of intellectual property.

The greatest cause of concern for Indians is that many of the popular trademarks are not registered and most inventions or designs are not patented. Inadequate laws and their brittle and stagnant existence expose the Indian market to the exploitation by transnational corporate interests. Many well-known brand names owned for decades by large business houses in India, are under threat from new multinational entrants. A registration or patenting that normally takes six years or more in India, requires on ly six months in the US. The American system first grants a patent and then advertises for any opposition, while in India granting of patent is the last ritual of a long and cumbersome procedure. It is perhaps the vulnerability of the Indian laws that le d to the patenting of products such as basmati rice, turmeric and tamarind in the US.

But this complacency is slowly being replaced by the increasing awareness on intellectual property rights as the business community now recognises the danger it faces from foreign commercial interests. This is indicated by the spate of applications reach ing the Patent Office and the Registrar of Trademarks and the sudden increase in the number of cases filed in courts under intellectual property.

The acts of infringement in the area of intellectual property are treated as invasions of proprietary rights. In most cases, owners and licencees of intellectual property have the locus standi to initiate legal action against tortfeasors. The civil actio n remedies to this are injunction, delivery up (handing over the infringing articles or documents for destruction), damages, and account of profits and `franking'. Solutions can also be found in the Copyright Act, Patents Act, Trade and Merchandise Marks Act and the Designs Act. Remedy against groundless threat can be found in all branches of intellectual property law.

With the advent of WTO and other international bodies that regulate transnational commerce, intellectual property rights of the Third World are under siege. Transnational big-business interests commercially exploit traditional knowledge and bio-diversity of these countries. Inadequacy of legal coverage and the lethargy in the administration contribute to the crisis and make the Indian inventor, breeder and farmer vulnerable to the onslaught of transnational commercial bullies. But as a member of the WTO , India is bound to implement the TRIPS Agreement (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) in toto. It is in discharge of this obligation that trademark, patent and copyright laws were amended in 1999, conforming to the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement.

At any rate, the global scenario compels India to fight the pressures from within and outside the country; the future is not for the meek but the brave.

Concerns within Uganda's Copyright enforcement environment

Uganda's Copyright system is deeply rooted in that of its former colonial masters that was produced locally during the immediate post-colonial period (Nicholson & Kawooya, 2008,p.2). Today, Uganda has to contend with issues broader than proliferation of literary and artistic works. This is in part recognised in the current Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act of 2006 that is the basis for the analysis of the impact of copyright on access to public information in Uganda (Nicholson & Kawooya, 2008,p.2). However, the concerns for having a framework of updating or applying copyright law is not coming from Uganda's lawmakers alone. The media and local music 'artisans' are beginning to speak out. On 22 November 2009 the Daily Monitor newspaper, one of Uganda's leading papers run a story; "Copyright Piracy Has Made It Expensive to Produce Our Films" that underscored how Africa's creative industries could be great success stories if only they had copyright protection (Van Gelder, 2009). Recent agitation by a few local musicians who had been led to believe that a strong copyright environment would most likely increase revenues from their works has also served turn the spotlight on copyright piracy (Nicholson & Kawooya, 2008,p.2). Perhaps an interesting twist to this discussion comes from a recent contribution made by Uganda's Minister of state for Information and Communication Technology while hailing the growing role of Nollywood in showcasing African culture through their films, when he said; "if a politician put up a radio or TV show during time when Nigerian films are aired, the majority of the people would not listen to the politician because of the huge interest in Nigerian films." Apart from noting the taste that Ugandans have for Nigerian films, an important aspect to the Minister's observation that was not mentioned was perhaps the proliferation and interest in Nigerian films is a reflection of the challenges faced by Ugandan authorities in implementing copyright law. Perhaps research in this area would serve to shade more light on the challenges that Ugandan authorities are experiencing in enforcing copyright law around the proliferation of Nigerian films.

Recent research on film copyright

A significant amount of the earlier and more recent research on copyright issues in the film industry has focused on the drivers of the audience behavior (Eliashberg, et.al, 2005, p.3). More recently, research has moved away from audience behaviour to more contemporary areas like Copyright on access to public information (Nicholson & Kawooya,2008), Fighting Piracy with Creative Solutions Gudaitis, et.al., (2004),Protecting the Motion Picture Industry from Intellectual Property Theft (Eliashberg, 2005) and even The Cost of Film Piracy (Motion Picture Association of America, 2008). Despite the fact that the amount of scholarly research is rapidly growing in the area of intellectual property, its impact on practice has not been as significant (Eliashberg, et.al, 2005). This latter statement partially captures the rationale for this research viz, to investigate the challenges of implementing copyright law on Nigerian films in Uganda; amidst all the debates and scholarly information available on the topic. In addition, this research will help build the body of knowledge on a very specific issue of challenges in implementing copyright policy in an African context that will serve to generate first hand information from a range of actors with an interest in the problem area.


A straight forward description of how I conducted the research.

Mention whether I used particular equipment, processes, materials. I will need to be clear and precise in how I describe them.

I must give enough detail for another researcher to replicate my study.

Research design and themes

This study will use a qualitative methods (Mytton, 1999, p.125) design, which is a procedure for collecting and analyzing qualitative data within a single study, to discover or understand human attributes, attitudes or behaviours in a more explanatory or interpretive way. The rationale for the choice of using the qualitative methods is to explore those issues and motivations that are most relevant in the choices people make when using the media (Mytton, 1999, p.127). In addition, qualitative research is "an inquiry process of understanding" where the researcher develops a "complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting" (Creswell, 1998, p. 15). Qualitative research also uses a flexible questioning approach which the researcher can follow up with additional questions at any time during the research (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006). However, in spite of its advantages, qualitative research is not without its flaws. Mytton (2007) argues that qualitative research usually cannot prove or disprove anything in the way that quantitative research might be able to. He then qualifies its importance by claiming that when used effectively and appropriately, qualitative research may be the only way that we can really understand peoples' motivations, attitudes and behaviour - a central aspect to the purpose of this research. Based on this design, the research study shall pursue 3 themes, notably; challenges of enforcing policy, motivations to film piracy and perceived creative solutions to fighting film piracy.

Sampling methods

The quota sampling method appropriate for research carried out in city centres (Moser & Kalton, 1993) will be employed. Easton & McColl (n.d) describe quota sampling as one of the best methods in opinion poll research. The disadvantage of quota sampling is that the sample is not a random sample and therefore the sampling distributions of any statistics are unknown (Easton & McColl, n.d). However, with almost nonexistent research done on copyright law in Uganda, this method is appropriate as it will generate initial data from which further research can build. Hansen, et.al. (1998, p.241) contend that in quota sampling the interviewer has the choice of choosing the number and location of their sampling units. In this research, opinions on issues pertinent to the research will be elicited from 20 other respondents from a range of institutions that are knowledgeable about copyright issues or even "consuming" Nigerian films. The preliminary institutions from which respondents will come from are Media Research Organizations, The Ugandan Ministry of Information and Communications, Makerere University's Policy research centre, Makerere University's Department of Mass Communications Uganda National Bureau of Standards, Uganda Communications Commission, TV stations and Policy Advocacy NGOs. As Miller (2000) argues, qualitative data collected from those immersed in everyday life of the setting in which the study is framed produces an understanding of the problem based on multiple contextual factors.

Data collection methods

This qualitative research will employ one main method to elicit text data; focus group discussions. This method has been chosen over other qualitative research methods such as participant observation and intensive interviews because of the limited time available to investigate all the ramifications of this research. In addition, this kind of copyright research has never been done before in Uganda; so this study will in all forms and approaches generate new knowledge from which further research can build. Mytton (2007, p.141) observes that quite often focus group discussions can show that audience and interviewer definitions about a topic can differ considerably. This in essence is a strength of this method in providing creative and new insights that inform and build on the body of knowledge in the research area. Wimmer & Dominick (2006, p.129) also underscore that focus groups are capable of being conducted quickly and provide data used to enhance understanding and to reveal a wide range of opinions, some of which the researcher might not expect. Focus group discussions have also been noted to provide flexibility in question design and follow-up (Wimmer & Dominick, p.130). However, focus groups are not entirely free of complications as Wimmer and Dominick (2006, p.130) observe. Self appointed leaders of discussions might dominate sessions and affect the morale to provide feedback from the rest of the group. In addition focus groups depend on the skills of the moderator. All these and other possible flaws of the method will be countered through the employment of a seasoned moderator. Focus group discussions will be carried out for 20 respondents from the range of institutions described above using a professional moderator. A total of 3 focus group discussions will take place, one in each of the months of July, August and September 2010. The focus group discussions will answer the following research questions:

What is the perception of Ugandan authorities efforts in preventing piracy on films in general?

Who is responsible of importing these films into Uganda?

What are the various channels by which Nigerian films enter Ugandan society?

What do you envisage to be the scale of Nigerian film piracy in Uganda in terms of revenue lost or some other parameter?

Are there legitimate traders throughout the chain? If not, at what point in the value chain that you have described does the trade become illegal?

Is there evidence that breaches in Uganda's 2006 copyright law are receiving legal redress?

What challenges if any do Ugandan authorities face in enforcing the country's copyright law and how can they overcome?

Which customs entry points best serve the Nigerian film vendor and why?

Is the translation of these films from the English to local Ugandan dialects sanctioned by any government body?

Do you think that rebroadcasting the films might be against the law in Uganda?

What do you think is the role of Nigerian film vendors in supporting the enforcement of the copyright law and how can this be achieved?

Describe what balance you would like to see in Ugandan versus Nigerian films and the role of copyright law enforcement in achieving this.

How thorough are Ugandan customs officials at preventing pirated films from entering the country's markets?

What measures is the Ugandan government employing to reduce the Nigerian film piracy products on the market? Is it working effectively?

Does the current 2006 copyright law and neighbouring rights act provide an adequate framework to enforce copyrights on Nigerian films? Justify your answer.

Research instruments and their application

A number of research instruments will be employed in this study. In the focus group discussions, a voice recorder and expert moderator shall be used to record and elicit key responses for this research respectively. The principal data produced from the focus groups are the verbal responses, statements, opinions, arguments and interactions of the participants (Hansen, et.al. 1998, p.276). As a "silent" participant in the focus group discussions, the researcher will take notes of the principal data produced throughout the duration of the discussions (Hansen, et.al., 1998, p.278). For greater accuracy of documenting responses, permission shall be sought in the use of a voice recorder. However, the researcher will use what the respondent feels more comfortable around. Debriefing with the participants will be conducted with the aim of obtain feedback on the clarity of the questions asked and whether they think they are relevant to the aim of the study. Respondents will be given the opportunity to review and, if required, correct the captured responses to the questions asked after they have been transcribed. For the whole duration of the research, a diary shall be kept of key activities and expected outcomes that will inform the research study.

Data Analysis

(Merriam, 1998) recommends that data collection and analysis proceed simultaneously in qualitative analysis. Hansen, et.al. (1998, p.278) contends that focus group discussions produce a large amount of textural data, essentially the dilemma of the researcher to analyse. However, Hansen et.al (1998, p.278) recommend the researcher to read through these transcripts to select 'striking' or 'typical' quotes which illustrate, confirm and enhance the researcher's (pre-conceived) ideas of the processes and phenomena which are being investigated, and, on the other hand, to remain open to new ideas, unanticipated responses, and unexpected conflicts in the statements of participants.

Research Permission and Ethical Considerations

Ethical issues will be addressed at each phase in the research. In compliance with the

regulations of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS) that the University of Leicester uphold, permission will be obtained before conducting various elements of the research. An "Informed Consent Form" will be administered providing information about the principal investigator, the project title and type, type of information requested, number and type of subjects as well as a request to capture images or record voices. The form will state that the participants are guaranteed certain rights, agree to be involved in the study, and acknowledge their rights are protected. All study data and evidence, including captured images, voice recordings and transcripts, will be kept in locked metal file cabinets in the researcher's office and destroyed in December 2011. Participants will be informed of how a summary of the data will be disseminated to the professional academic community; however the researcher will absolutely ensure that it will be impossible to trace responses to individuals.

Reliability and validity

During the data collection procedure, I might develop cordial and supportive relations with some participants to better understand the challenges of enforcing copyright or "beating the system" of enforcement. This could introduce a possibility for subjective interpretations of the phenomenon being studied and create a potential for bias (Locke, Spirduso & Silverman, 2000). I will employ extensive verification procedures, including triangulation of data sources, follow-up, and thick and rich descriptions of the cases will be used to establish the accuracy of the findings and to control some of the "backyard" research issues.


Find out from whether there is an overall chapter that called "Findings" that brings the results and their discussion together.

Should I begin with an initial overview of the results, followed by detail? Or should I move immediately into the details of the results?

Consider in what order I might be presenting detailed results and;

What balance, in terms of word space I want to achieve across the spread of results that I have.

DISCUSSION - separate chapter or should I combine with discussion? - ask tutor

Review my own research in relation to the wider context in which it is located.

Refer back to rationale that I gave for my research in the literature review - and


This chapter is much shorter than the discussion.

It is not a mere 'summary' of my research.

It presents conclusions as to the main points that have emerged and what they mean for my field (the topic).


Pre-fieldwork phase

- Finalise proposal following comments from tutor and examiners - Mid April-End April

-Gathering of further literature review on topic (background reports, articles etc) - Mid April- continuous

- Source for expert moderator to be available in July, August and September - late April -end June

- Setting up appointments, booking dates and venues for the 3 focus group discussions - May -June

-Identifying respondents to interview - Begin July- End July

-Designing and pretesting questionnaires - Begin August- End August

- Acquiring/renting equipment to use (voice recorder & digital camera) - End August

Fieldwork phase

- Conduct focus group discussions - July, August September (conduct 1 in each month)

- Sorting responses/preliminary analysis of data - July, August September - continuous

Post-fieldwork phase

- Detailed Data Analysis - Begin October - End November

- Write up of dissertation draft - Begin December

- Editing and Rewrites- December- End March 2011

- Printing and Binding - 1st Week April 2011 - Post Final Dissertations to University of Leicester (UoL)- by mid April 2011 - Deadline for UoL to receive - April 23, 2011

All-through research phase

- Consult Tutor


Title Page


Table of Contents

List of Images



-History of problem

-Definitions of intellectual property

-Statement of the problem and research purpose

-Significance of the problem

-Theoretical framings and research questions


-Global concerns around intellectual property rights

-Concerns within Uganda's Copyright enforcement environment

-Recent research on film copyright


-Research design

-Sampling methods

-Data collection methods

-Research instruments and their application

-Research permission and ethical considerations

-Reliability and validity

-Data analysis



-Data Analysis and Examples

-Key Findings







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